|Thorsten Kaye as Ridge Forrester|
|The Bold and the Beautiful|
|Portrayed by|| Ronn Moss (1987–2012) |
Thorsten Kaye (2013–)
|Current status||Present, Contract|
|First appearance||March 23, 1987|
|Nickname(s)|| Forrester, Smidge (both by Bill) |
Mr. Moral (by Rick)
|Namesake(s)|| Bridget Forrester|
Ridge "R.J." Forrester, Jr.
|Born||January 28, 1957|
|Occupation|| CEO of Forrester Creations |
|Residence|| Logan Mansion|
200 North Beston Place
Los Angeles, California
|Ronn Moss as Ridge Forrester|
|“||Logan, tell me you want to be my wife. Again. I want to hear it.||”|
— To Brooke
Ridge is the son of Stephanie Forrester and Massimo Marone. Ridge's legal father, as well as stepfather is Eric Forrester who thought Ridge was biologically his. Ridge has four half-siblings Felicia Forrester, Thorne Forrester, Kristen Forrester, and Angela Forrester. Angela died at birth, due to a great disorder. Ridge is very close to Thorne but especially Stephanie.
Caroline, Brooke, & Taylor Edit
At the start of the series, Ridge is dating Caroline Spencer. Caroline's dad, Bill Spencer, hears about Ridge's bad reputation with women and asks him not to see Caroline again. Later that evening, Ridge proposes to Caroline out of spite. Bill Spencer hires a private investigator to look into Ridge and see if he is mistreating Caroline. Bill tries to trust Ridge and calls the private investigator off, but he has already found something; a picture of Ridge sleeping with a former fling, Alex Simpson. On Caroline's wedding day, Bill tells Caroline what he has found. Caroline is heartbroken and angry at her father and decides to go on with the wedding anyway. As she is walking down the aisle, she faints and is taken to the hospital. After she is released, Ridge realizes he really does love her, but Caroline decides she needs to live on her own for awhile. Caroline does not tell anyone where she is staying, but when she needs money, she seeks the help of Ridge's sister Kristen. Ridge, however, suspects that Kristen knows where Caroline is and follows her one day to Caroline's apartment. Ridge wants to get Caroline back and decides to court her. However, after a very long time courting Caroline and her refusing to marry him just yet, he begins to feel that his needs are not being met.
Brooke Logan was originally engaged to Ridge but Ridge chose Caroline. Brooke was sad watching them exchange vows and Eric comforted her and she got pregnant but aborted it and Eric later left Stephanie for Brooke making Brooke and Stephanie B&B's greatest rivalry. Brooke and Eric then got pregnant again but Brooke didn't know whether it was of Ridge or Eric. The paternity test said Eric, but ex-fugitive Sheila Carter tampered with a second test to make it Ridge's so she could snag Eric from Stephanie. The child was Eric's and was named Bridget Forrester, a combination of Brooke and Ridge. Massimo Marone came to town to woo Ridge's mother Stephanie and Ridge got cut bad and went to the hospital. Ridge's and Eric's blood samples made it clear that Eric and Ridge could not be father and son. Ridge later found out Massimo was his father. Eric was devastated but still favored Ridge over his other children. By this time Nick Marone, Massimo's other son and Ridge's half-brother were fighting over Brooke's affections. Ridge and Brooke during one marriage had a honeymoon in South Africa and were kidnapped by thugs hired by ex-fugitive Sheila Carter with Nick for Massimo's gold. Ridge fighting for Brooke, fell in a furnace and was thought to be dead. Nick and Brooke then got pregnant and Ridge returned. Brooke didn't know who the father was. It was Nick's child but Brooke miscarried it. After Caroline died of Leiukemia, Ridge went for counseling lessons and that's where he met Taylor Hayes the psychiatrist. Ridge marries Taylor and she becomes Taylor Hayes Forrester. Stephanie took Taylor in like a daughter and they've been good friends. Brooke broke up Taylor and Ridge and Stephanie and Eric prior. Stephanie and Taylor both hated Brooke for breaking up their marriages. Taylor and Stephanie have fierce rivalries with Brooke. Taylor and Ridge had three children. Thomas Forrester (who was originally thought to be Thorne's), and two twins Steffy Forrester and Phoebe Forrester. Taylor named Thomas after Ridge and Taylor's romantic experience in St. Thomas and Steffy after Stephanie Forrester. Brooke broke up Taylor and Ridge. Felicia, Thorne, and Ridge all banded together to take out Donna Logan, Brooke's sister who tried to marry Eric Forrester and did. Ridge gave into Brooke before and did again and again. Brooke and Ridge have been married 5 or 6 times. Brooke also married Eric and Thorne too. Ridge didn't like Brooke and Eric's son Rick Forrester from the start. Rick dated Phoebe then kissed Steffy and slept with Taylor. At the time, Taylor was an alcoholic and got in many crazy relationships. Phoebe found out and was fighting with Rick driving in a car, and Rick crashed and killed Phoebe. Ridge came down to help her and was mad at Rick. Months later Rick began to date Steffy after their sorrow of Phoebe. Ridge was outraged when he found this out also. Stephanie also didn't like Rick dating Steffy saying he's been with practically everybody. Liam Spencer was sent to L.A. and find his father (Bill Spencer Jr.) and thought it was randomly Ridge. Ridge recognized that Liam made the tape at Hope Logan's (Brooke's daughter) graduation of Brooke and Oliver having sex that Steffy exposed. Liam manipulated the tape to make it Steffy's fault and Ridge got angry. Stephanie held a vote to kick Brooke down to 49% of Forrester Creations The people who voted her down to were Macy, Eric, Stephanie, Ridge, and Thorne. Taylor was not there. Ridge now lives in Paris, France with Jack (The son of Nick Marone and Taylor Hayes Marone, but indirectly Brooke Logan's son from an egg donation). Ridge surprisingly didn't show up for his mother's funeral or Steffy's second wedding to Liam. Steffy recently ended her marriage to Liam after suffering a miscarriage and receiving news that she cannot have children as a result, which resulted in her moving to Paris to be with her father.
Ridge makes his dramatic return to Los Angeles in December 2013 showing up at the Forrester mansion and seeing Eric for the first time in over a year. Ridge and Eric have a heartfelt reunion where Eric updates Ridge on what has happened in the past year he was gone. Ridge also expresses his guilt that he wasn't there for his mother during her final moments, but Eric assured Ridge that Stephanie loved Ridge no matter what. Eric offers a room for Ridge at the mansion which Ridge accepts and reveals the reason why he returned: to reunite with Brooke, completely unaware that during his absence, she had an affair with Bill who was married at the time to her sister, Katie. Ridge and Katie shared a love for poetry and went to the park with R.J. and Will. He talked to Katie about it and began to regularly support her building an emotional bond. Liam Spencer walked in on them close and almost kissing when Katie called him over. Katie told Ridge to marry Brooke and that she'd be alright. Liam encouraged Katie to go with her gut but she made the points that she didn't want to be a Brooke and they always end up with each other. Brooke told Katie that her and Ridge are getting married. Brooke then asked Katie to be their matron of honor and with Brooke's constant pushing, Katie agreed.
At Brooke and Ridge's marriage, Carter Walton, found a poem he thought represented Ridge and Brooke's relationship which happened to be Ridge and Katie's favorite poem, "Love's Philosophy" and Katie fainted to the ground. Later, Katie told Ridge that she faked it because she couldn't let him marry her sister. When Hope found out about her aunt and Ridge's feelings for each other, she said she would take her mom with her and Wyatt to Paris to give them time to sort things out. But Ridge and Katie shared a passionate kiss, revealing their love for each other and cuddling and making out. When Brooke returned, the two confessed everything to a skeptical and angry Brooke. A teary-eyed Brooke later tried to win back Ridge after getting support from Donna, but Ridge admits that his heart is with Katie now, and he leaves Brooke to go home to Katie, where they make love for the first time.
Ridge decided to take over Forrester again by firing Oliver because of his below average shots and tried to kick Rick out of his presidency. Ridge felt Hope For The Future is nothing like Couture. Eric decided to side with Rick after Brooke medlled with the situation and Oliver was rehired. Eric made Ridge and Brooke both co-vice presidents of the company. Eric told Ridge that is he left Katie and went back to Brooke, he can take over his place as CEO. Ridge and Katie were having sex when ridge told her about this. Katie was shocked because she thought that Eric liked her but told him to do it for the position. Ridge decided not to. Bill went to Brooke's and let her know that he has been patient with her and won't take no for an answer. The two had sex and were in love yet again. Brooke decided to call Katie and let her know that her and Bill are back together as Katie and Ridge were having sex. Katie thought Brooke did this to make Katie jealous or something. Katie went to Eric's office to discuss this. Eric told her that they work well together and it's a business decision. Katie told Eric that she thinks it's more than that and this is because he wants Ridge with Brooke as Brooke listened closely. Eric left as Brooke came in and Katie blasted Brooke briefly before leaving.
After Katie lost the company, Ridge proposed to her Katie a ribbon. When Brooke came over to Katie's, she asked her what is that. Katie rubbed it in Brooke's face and told her that Ridge and her are getting married. Bill then proposed to Brooke and promised a trip to Abu Dhabi and Dubai to get married. Donna told this to Katie. Katie was fine with that but Ridge didn't want Bill raising R.J. or marrying Brooke. Before Bill and Brooke left, Ridge told Brooke not to marry Bill. Brooke left with Bill. Bill then proposed to Brooke and promised a trip to Abu Dhabi and Dubai to get married. Donna told this to Katie. Katie was fine with that but Ridge didn't want Bill raising R.J. or marrying Brooke. Before Bill and Brooke left, Ridge told Brooke not to marry Bill. Brooke left with Bill. Bill and Brooke left for Abu Dhabi and Dubai. At a Forrester meeting, Ridge disliked Quinn and Wyatt's jewelry and was distressed about Bill and Brooke. Quinn sent some jewelry photos and the picture of Bill and her to Ridge. Quinn told Ridge that they had an affair even though it really wasn't an "affair". Before leaving, Ridge told Eric who was shocked. Eric confronted Quinn about this because he thought she hated Bill. Quinn claimed she was lonely and "what you and I had, well that's not really relevant right now." Ridge left for the Middle East and sent called Katie telling her about it and sent her Quinn's picture. Katie confronted Quinn and was upset that Quinn was the reason her fiance was half way around the world with her sister. Just after Bill and Brooke exchanged their vows, Ridge showed up to break them up. After Bill and Brooke said their "I-Do's", Ridge arrives and yells" Logan." Ridge shows them the picture which shocks Brooke. Ridge punches Bill to the ground and ran off with Brooke pulling her by the hand. Ridge took Brooke into the helicopter, Bill nodded to the pilot. The chopper flew up when Bill said into his walkee-talkee "Cool him off." The pilot swayed the chopper as Ridge felt his arm and on the sleeve had a Spencer Publications symbol and a black face turned around as Ridge recognized Justin Barber to be the pilot. Ridge fell into the Persian Gulf. Brooke was freaking out. Katie and Eric heard the news and flew to Dubai. Thorne was later called to show up. Thorne supported Katie who was engaged to Ridge. Bill told Justin not to tell anybody and Justin claimed who would he tell and why would he. Word got out and after Liam made the accusation that Quinn may be the reason Ridge is dead. Rick fired Quinn and Wyatt from the company. Everybody thought Ridge was dead when Brooke found Ridge walking alone on the beach. Katie found Brooke and Ridge hugging. At first Ridge couldn't remember Katie that well. He had suffered some amnesia. After Katie recited their poem, he spoke the last line and remembered her. Back in L.A., the Forresters held a welcoming back party for Ridge and Katie didn't want to rush him but wanted to get married and start where they left off.
Working with Caroline Edit
When Ridge finds himself feeling uninspired and can't seem to design anything, Caroline, who has always idolized Ridge as a designer, offers to help him, which angers Rick because of his own personal hatred for Ridge. However, Caroline gets her chance to work with her idol, which begins to put a strain on her marriage. Maya noticed that Caroline and Ridge were working closely together on a couture line behind closed doors not letting anybody in, hoping there was something more. She told Rick she saw them hugging, but he had faith in Caroline and denied it. Maya tried to bring up the memories they shared, but Rick continued to stay faithful to his wife. Ever since Bill dumped Ridge into the Persian Gulf during an altercation at Bill and Brooke's wedding attempt, Ridge lost his ability to draw. He could coarse Caroline's hand and draw perfectly though. Caroline began getting frustrated with Ridge's perfectionist ways and asked why couldn't he do it himself but realized he can't. He admit to it and made Caroline promise that she wouldn't tell anybody, not even Rick. Katie walks in on them working closely and they explain their partnership. Katie begins to feel uncomfortable and discusses this with Rick who is also secretly a bit uncomfortable. Rick got angry that Ridge is taking credit for Caroline's designs but Caroline insisted she's happy to help him. Rick brought this up to Eric who decided to resign from CEO and will give his position to either Rick or Ridge. He asked Caroline who he should give it to but she didn't have an answer. Caroline expressed her romantic feelings to Ridge, who admit he has a crush on her too and kissed her. However, Caroline ends up feeling very guilty over the kiss due to her knowing how much Rick hates Ridge and how devestated he would be if he found out. However, the duo are exposed by Maya Avant after Eric had just named Ridge CEO of Forrester Creations. Rick is devestated and leaves in a rage. Ridge's relationship with Katie is also affected by what happened with Caroline, and despite their best efforts, Katie can't get past what Ridge has done and breaks off the engagement.
Eric signed the paper to give Rick irrevocable control. Rick was preaching to everybody in the meeting how he can do this for a year while Eric is away, with the help of a loyal woman by his side. Caroline thought Rick was talking about her when Rick called Maya in an announced that he is still with Maya. Rick and Maya moved into the Forrester Mansion while Eric was briefly away and Maya kicked Ivy and Aly out for a day to have some privacy. Rick also took down stephanie's portrait and hung up a portrait of Maya. Maya was a little nervous thinking how people would react but Rick insisted. The Forresters were offended by Rick's actions especially Stephanie's sister, Pamela Douglas. Ivy and Aly agreed that Rick's just doing this to get back at Caroline and that he still loves her. In a Forrester meeting, Rick was bothered by the success of Caroline and Ridge's art, he even turned down Aly's great design in shoes. Rick dismissed everybody and threatened to fire Caroline and Ivy. Liam Spencer rushed in and punched Rick to the floor! Rick started cracking up but let them keep their jobs.
Brooke returned to L.A. from Milan only to find Maya home in Brooke's lingerie from the Brooke's Bedroom line.Maya welcomed her in and put a red robe on. Brooke was shocked to see Maya's portrait on the wall in place of Stephanie's. Brooke was appalled and uninformed. Maya stated it's only temporary until Eric comes back. Maya questioned if Rick has told her what's going on and Brooke denied it. Maya stated Caroline turned to someones else. Brooke was astonished and at first she wanted Rick to tell her the story but then she blurted out it was Ridge. Maya went up stairs to change and tried to be polite with Brooke.
Rick filed divorce papers and wanted to get rid of Stephanie's gun too. The lawyer forgot to take it with him at Forrester, so Rick took a stroll with it, and found Caroline and Ridge on top of each other, making out, in an office. Rick cracked open the door and fired gun shots at the wall. Ridge sprung up and Rick questioned both of them. Ridge took the gun away from Rick and emptied the bullets. Pam, Charlie, and Carter rushed over hearing gun shots. They were surprised to find out that Rick shot them. Rick still doesn't want Ridge with his wife, but Ridge stated that he doesn't want her anymore. Ridge was going to call Lieutenant Baker to file a report but Caroline convinced him otherwise. Rick returned to the Forrester Mansion to see his mother, Brooke Logan, back talking to Maya. Maya informed Brooke about Caroline and Ridge's affair. Rick stated gunshots were shot at the office. Brooke and Maya were shocked. Rick stated he shot them at Ridge and Caroline. Brooke called Ridge and was concerned. Brooke was on Rick's side, shocked about Ridge and Caroline's affair. Ridge stated they'll have this conversation another time. Caroline signed the divorce papers without even reading them over. Ridge suggested running away with her and starting their own company.
Brooke arrived at Forrester Creations trying to control everybody by threatening to fire Ridge and insisting that Caroline and Rick work their marriage out of his relationship with Maya is over. However, Brooke's theory didn't work and Rick remained with Maya as well as Caroline remained with Ridge. Ridge and Caroline moved into an apartment together. Ridge decided to paint a portrait of her with her holding a sheet covering up her privates. After he was done, she stated she thought he meant he wanted to paint her and they began painting each others bodies. Brooke texted Ridge wanting to talk to him in person at the Logan Mansion. Ridge rushed over there and found Brooke in undergarments and an unbuttoned robe. Brooke explained she wanted to be with him and they have so much history. Ridge explained he's with Caroline and Brooke called their relationship a fling. Brooke asked him to look at her and tell her she's not in love. Ridge stated he is in love which Brooke thought was her but he stated he's in love with Caroline and left.
After Brooke and Eric kept favoring Rick about his position, Ridge decided to quit, which hurt Eric because he's his son and greatest asset to Forrester. Ridge told Carter he quit and right when Ridge was fleeing out the door, Carter stopped him to tell him something important. Carter blurted out to Ridge that Maya is transgender. Ridge was shocked and actually felt bad for Little Ricky. Ridge reasked for his job back and then told Eric and Brooke who Maya really is. Eric and Brooke were amazed and Eric wouldn't let Ridge humiliate Rick like that. Brooke appointed herself the one to tell Rick. Brooke confronted Maya about her and Rick's honesty and her not being who she really is. Brooke called her Myron and stated she knows. Maya was devastated and asked who told Brooke and she was shocked to hear it was Ridge. Maya stated she'll tell Rick when he proposes which they agreed they both know is soon. Brooke insisted Maya wouldn't humiliate him like that, down on one knee, to tell him. Maya insisted she won't accept unless he accepts all of her.
Rick ended up at the Forrester Mansion safely after his car crash trying to catch up with an upset Maya after she told him her secret in Big Bear Cabin and Bill Spencer published her secret by Nicole telling Wyatt. Rick was adamant about having to talk to her but Brooke insisted he rested up and healed. Maya sent an online resignation to Forrester which Ridge rubbed in his face. Ridge stated he should be CEO of Forrester and Rick attacked him. Ridge tried to convinced Eric to make him CEO while Rick did the same. Rick stated Ridge stole both of their wives and he should believe in him because of the profits and leadership. Eric stated his behavior hasn't been good and he should take some time off, maybe go back to Paris.
Caroline returned to L.A. with Ridge wheeling her in a wheelchair after she got hit by a car in New York. Ridge promised to take care of her. Caroline was shocked to hear her uncle Bill published the true story about Maya being transgendered.
After Eric wouldn't appoint Ridge as CEO, Ridge called Steffy on the phone to meet him at Forrester. Steffy arrived informed that Maya is transgender and Eric won't remove Rick as CEO. Ridge insisted he needed Steffy and him to be a team to take over Forrester and she agreed. Ridge insisted this is bigger than her getting Liam back and him getting CEO. Rick arrived in his office giving them a hard time. Ridge called Liam to meet him at Forrester. Liam was happy to see Steffy and she was also pleased. Ridge convinced Liam to use Steffy's, Thomas's, Bill's controlled by Liam, and Thomas's to overpower Eric. Steffy stated there are no conditions this time. Liam agreed and Ridge insisted to Eric that they're taking over while Eric insisted he's in charge which Ridge stated he's in charge now. Ridge was the new CEO, with Steffy president, and Liam vice president, which he is also at Spencer's. Steffy and Liam agreed they would make a great team. Liam stated Steffy's change like a cool mountain stream. They remembered their time in Aspen by a stream. Steffy stated she is not afraid to state that she loves him and will always love him with Ivy overhearing.
Nicole stated she needed to speak to Rick privately. Rick explained he couldn't get the chance to answer because his car crashed. Nicole told him that Maya's at her old apartment at Dayzee's. Rick dressed up as a waiter in the same tie dye shirt asking Maya for her order. Rick explained the story to Maya and that he still loves her. Maya claims she was leaving town but Rick convinced her to stay while he had a business meeting to go to. Rick and Eric were getting nervous that Steffy, Ridge, and Liam were going to use Ridge's, Steffy's, Thomas's, and Bill's shares to take over Forrester Creations. Rick came to Bill to make a business proposition. Rick tried convincing Bill to use his shares to his and Eric's advantage and he'll have more control around the company. In the middle of the meeting in Rick's office, Bill barged in explaining their deal and his predicament. Bill explained he doesn't like the way Ridge treats him. Bill asked Ridge and Rick to convince him why he should take their side. Bill commended Liam for protecting Caroline and Ivy. Ultimately, Bill chose to side with Rick under one condition, Maya, the face of Forrester Creations, has to go. Rick punched Bill and withdrew from the deal. Ridge became the new CEO with Steffy president and Liam vice president. Rick explained to Maya the news and that all that matter's is that they're still together.
Maya returns to the Forrester Mansion and Rick persuades her to stay. Ridge barges in, in the middle of their kiss, to state that Forrester needs her. Maya's supporters online believe that Forrester Creations forced her to leave the company. Ridge asked her to come back and offered her the lead model position. Maya stated she'd love to work as lead model at Forrester again under one condition, that Rick can come back too. Ridge allowed Rick to run International from Los Angeles and Maya to return as lead model.
Pam welcomed Zende Forrester Dominguez to the company and directed him towards his uncle Ridge. Ridge was ecstatic to see him again and was happy to hear he's applying for an internship. During the internship meeting, Ridge questioned why Nicole is here. Nicole stated she's applying as an intern and gave him her resume. She apologized for acting like a big shot around here. Nicole convinced Ridge to hire her and her new friend, Zende. Ridge hired all of them five interns. Ridge sent love to his mom when Nicole noticed they must know each other. Ridge stated Zende's mother, Kristen, is his sister, making Zende his nephew. Nicole was amazed Zende didn't tell her he's a Forrester. At the same time, Zende never knew Nicole is Maya's little sister.
Ridge and Steffy ended Hope For The Future and started a new Forrester line called California Freedom which involves the same morals of HFTF but encourages women to be free with their bodies and involves lingerie and swimwear. The lead lingerie model was going to be Steffy. Aly Forrester was strongly resentful and started arguments, showing hatred towards Steffy and Maya in particular. Everybody ignored Aly and Steffy suggested Aly leaving for Paris. Ridge stated he said Aly can stay here if she behaves. Ridge chose Maya to be the lead model for the line which made Rick and Maya happy.
Aly's Death and Thomas's ReturnEdit
Ridge and Caroline attended Aly's funeral who was killed by Steffy in self-defense. Thomas returned to L.A. to attend the funeral who hugged Ridge. Ridge made a rude lecture bashing everybody for not preventing Aly from going off the rails which angered Thorne especially.
After the funeral, Thomas explained to Ridge and Caroline that he will be staying permanently in L.A. He asked Ridge for a job at Forrester Creations but Ridge kept giving him a hard time, stating there are no executive positions available and every employee has to earn their job. Thomas stated he actually wants to be part of the design team. Thomas explained with Ridge being CEO, he has many responsibilities and he prefers designing over crunching numbers. Ridge agreed to make him part of the design team.
Caroline saw Thomas working out and shirtless and Thomas joked with her about her relationship with his dad and asked how it all started. Thomas drew a portrait of Caroline.
Caroline got emotional when her divorce from Rick became finalized. She just realized that she had so many goals and dreams she planned that ended. Caroline explained to Ridge she didn't expect their relationship but enjoys it. Caroline explained the one think she really wants is to be a mother. She began crying about this and asked Ridge if he'd have a baby with her. Ridge said no and Caroline said if it's between a baby and him, she'll choose him every time.
Ivy blackmails Thomas into convincing Ridge to make her the new face of Forrester or Steffy goes to prison with a video she recorded of Steffy hitting Aly with a tire iron. At the conference, Ridge was leaning on choosing Steffy when Ivy stated she'd like to give it a shot. Steffy and Ridge were initially concerned but Wyatt backed her up and Thomas spoke up and agreed that Ivy would be better because people are still talking about the incident with Aly. Steffy is angry with Thomas and he informed her about the blackmail and the video.
Brooke informs Thomas that Ridge is going to decide whether or not he'll have a child with Caroline. Ridge tells Caroline she'll be a wonderful mother and he wants her to raise her child. But not with him. He says the man she'll have a child with is lucky. Caroline is devastated and bursts out crying and leaves Ridge's apartment. Caroline rents her own apartment. Thomas calls Caroline to ask if his designs will be good enough for the California Freedom line for Ridge. Caroline sounds upset and starts to cry and Thomas insists on coming over. Caroline explains she's not at Ridge's apartment and Thomas asks for her address. Caroline texts Thomas her address. Caroline takes some anti-anxiety pills she stole from Pamela Douglas. Thomas arrives at her apartment and Caroline confides in him about how Ridge broke her heart. Thomas pours them both a glass of wine and they continue to talk. Caroline lies on the bed and is drunk and high and calls Thomas a good friend. Thomas kisses Caroline. The next morning, Thomas and Caroline wake up in her bed. Caroline questions what happened and is shocked to hear that Thomas and her made love. Caroline is upset and devastated. Caroline doesn't remember making love to Thomas but Thomas explains they did after they talked and drank wine. Caroline tries to recollect and and accuses Thomas of taking advantage of her if she passed out. Thomas explains she wanted it too after they kissed. Caroline remembers taking Pam's anti-anxiety pills, making her unaware, accusing Thomas of taking advantage of her. Thomas explains they talked for a very long while and she was fully aware. Caroline leaves devastated. Ridge texts Caroline to come back to his apartment. Ridge apologizes and admits he wants to be with her. Ridge stated even though he doesn't really want to, he's willing to have a child with her. Caroline becomes emotional and happily accepts his offer. Ridge texts Thomas to come over. Ridge announces that they're back together and are trying to have a baby. Thomas congratulates them and Ridge claims he called Thomas over because he's had his doubts about their relationship.
Ridge and Caroline decide to get a marriage license and have a quick elopement and get married. Caroline visits the gynecologist. The doctor took the results and confirms Caroline's pregnancy, which shocks her. Caroline realizes the child is most likely Thomas's because the pregnancy is recent. The doctor notices Caroline's shock and questions her about it. Caroline confides in the doctor that the child may not be her husband's, but a man she was with on a one night stand the night Ridge broke up with her. Caroline questions whether she can get paternity results but the doctor states it's to early in the pregnancy to tell. Caroline realizes it's Thomas's child and is distraught. Caroline returns home to Ridge who insists on telling her some big news. Caroline asks if it can wait because it's really important but Ridge insists. Ridge informs Caroline about the vasectomy he had done last year and he had been planning to get it reversed as a surprise. Turns out, the vasectomy cannot be undone, so he can't be the father to her baby. Caroline is devastated and Ridge feels empathetic. Ridge asks what she wanted to tell him. Caroline explains that on the night they broke up, a friend comforted her in her apartment. She admits to using some of Pam's pills she picked up, which she was meaning to return, mixed with some alcohol, which he had been drinking as well. Caroline admits that she fell asleep and woke up and was informed they slept together. Ridge is angry and asks whether he took advantage of her but Caroline insists otherwise. Ridge asks about this guy and Caroline reveals his name to be Thomas. Ridge asks if it's his son and Caroline confirms it to be the one. Ridge is angry and asks what Thomas is to her, a friend, more than a friend, and Caroline bursted out that he's the father of her baby. Ridge is furious and throws a vase. Caroline is crying and sorry and Ridge is heartbroken that his son would do this to him. Caroline and Ridge feel their relationship is over when Ridge suggests raising her baby as their own without telling Thomas. Caroline was indecisive at first but soon after agreed.
Also during this time, Caroline called Thomas insisting on seeing him but Thomas insisted it isn't a good time. Caroline rushed over to the Forrester Mansion and arrived at the door of Thomas's room and noticed Charlotte the intern under the covers in his bed. Charlotte apologized and left. Caroline upset didn't want to tell him. Ridge arrived at the Forrester Mansion in the middle of Thomas kissing Charlotte. Charlotte apologized and left. Ridge scolded Thomas for having relations with an intern even though Ridge has been with plenty of them. Thomas vented his resentment towards Ridge for never being there when he was a kid and punched Ridge. Ridge ordered the private jet to fly Thomas back to Paris and Caroline stood by him. Thomas unhappily went off to Paris. Thomas returned shortly after. Steffy convinced Ridge to give Thomas his job back as co-designer with Caroline. Thomas walks in on Caroline and Ridge's sonogram at the hospital. He claims he was there for a check up and happened to see them here.
While Ridge is away on business, Thomas genuinely apologizes to Caroline in which he is forgiven. Caroline starts having contractions and Thomas rushes her to the hospital. The doctor informs Caroline it was only premature contractions that could have ensued from the use of drugs or alcohol even at the earliest stages of the pregnancy. The doctor also informs them that Caroline's baby is a boy.
While Ridge is away on business, Thomas gives Caroline a genuine heartfelt apology and wishes her and Ridge the best. Caroline forgives Thomas and Thomas claims he's trying to change. Caroline starts having contractions so Thomas takes her to the hospital. The doctor informs Caroline that it's just contractions and that she's not going into labor. Caroline asks what could have caused the premature contractions. The doctor suggests it could have resulted from the use of drugs or alcohol even at he earliest stages of the pregnancy which worries Caroline. The doctor tells her that her baby boy looks healthy. Caroline is excited to find out the gender and Thomas is happy for her. Caroline gives birth to Douglas Forrester in the Forrester Mansion. Thomas begins to feel a special connection with Douglas.
The Unraveling RevelationEdit
Ridge's vasectomy doctor, Dr. Wolin watches Ridge and Caroline at lunch with Douglas at Al Giordino. Caroline and Ridge both notice his repeated glances. Caroline admits to Ridge that she misses Douglas and Ridge allows her to go home while he takes care of the bill. Ridge walks over to Wolin's table. Wolin explains to Ridge that the baby could not possibly be his kid because he had zero sperm count. Ridge claims that he went to different doctors but Wolin assures him that he cannot be the father. Katie witnesses their conversation from afar while Ridge leaves the area. Katie sits down by Wolin and explains she's a good friend of Ridge's and is concerned about him and would like to know if he's hiding a secret. Wolin is initially resistant to tell her but then admits to Katie that he had a vasectomy back in Paris and could not possibly be Douglas's father. Wolin leaves and follows Ridge outside. He blackmails Ridge for a hundred grand in the next twenty four hours or he'll blow his secret out of the water. Ridge has no comment and begins to walk away while Wolin gets hit by a car. Ridge arrives at Forrester and tells Caroline about Wolin, which makes her very nervous.
Katie hears about Wolin's accident in the paper and confronts Ridge about it, accusing him of knowing anything about the incident, which makes Ridge very defensive. Katie admits to Ridge that Dr. Wolin informed her about the vasectomy. Ridge makes up the lie that they got sperm from a donor and they don't want people to know. Katie tells Caroline she knows the truth about Douglas's paternity. Katie tells her she kind of forced it out of Ridge and she met with Dr. Wolin who told her Ridge isn't the father. Caroline blurts out that Thomas is the father, believing Katie already knew. Katie is shocked to learn Thomas is Douglas's real father. Katie tells Ridge what Caroline admitted and encourages him to tell Thomas the truth. Ridge decides to tell Thomas that he is the biological father of Douglas. Thomas later tricks Pam and takes off with his son making Caroline panic. Caroline finds them and Thomas states that he will keep quite if he can be apart of his son's life and Caroline agreed.
Thomas asks Ridge and Caroline to spend some time with his son. Ridge dislikes Thomas calling Douglas his son and mandates him to go to Shanghai for five years to gain business experience. Thomas agrees and Caroline supports Ridge. At night, Caroline grabs something from the kitchen in The Forrester Mansion, where Thomas appears shirtless. Caroline is surprised to see him and Thomas explains that he was at the airport and decided he couldn't leave for five years and miss out on Douglas's life. Ridge enters the kitchen wondering what Thomas is doing back. Thomas demands that he starts having a stake in his child's life under his rules which Ridge reluctantly agrees to.
Back with BrookeEdit
In 2016, RJ returns at 16, much to his parents' pleasure. He informs them how he moved here from boarding school to live with them. Therefore, Brooke and Ridge allow him to move back into the Forrester Mansion. However, from the start, RJ encourages his parents to get back together for their family. Brooke informs RJ that she's currently engaged with Bill, much to RJ's dismay. However, the three of them begin to bond through having family dinners and looking through photo albums. Brooke and Ridge start to feel that sentimental spark again. RJ encourages Ridge to try to woo Brooke back for their family. Ridge tries to win back Brooke but Brooke keeps declining. Ridge tells Brooke that she feels obligated to marry Bill to inherit his 12.5% to kick Quinn out of the company. But Brooke feels that she is truly in love with Bill. Ridge takes Brooke to a cliff above the beach. Ridge shows Brooke a giant heart he and RJ made in the sand for her, with their names in it. Brooke feels deeply touched by this and decides to be with Ridge, ending her engagement to Bill.
RJ encourages Ridge to propose to his mom. RJ, Brooke, and Ridge get to spend Christmas together as a family, declining from going to the Forrester Mansion, to show their disapproval of Eric's relationship with Quinn. Ridge gives Brooke a wrapped present box for Christmas with a ring inside. He proposes to Brooke, making her teary-eyed and happily accepting.
After the Forrester family learns about Eric's new relationship with Quinn, they are very disapproving. Eric and Quinn plan to get married at the Forrester Mansion in front of their friends and family. They invite all of the Forresters to attend however the only one who showed up was Ivy. Eric feels devastated but nevertheless marries Quinn out of his love and devotion for her. The rest of the Forretser family, including Felicia and Thorne, gather in Eric's office and wait until Eric arrives. They want to use the company's morality clause against him. Eric and Quinn successfully get married with Perez Hilton as their officiate. Eric arrives in his office upset at his whole family. The Forresters try to explain that they were doing this for his own good and Quinn is a danger to the family. Eric calls everybody out on the immoral things they've done but reminds them that he forgave them. Eric collapses on the floor. The family goes to see Eric in the hospital bed, who slips into a coma.
At Forrester Creations, Liam supports Steffy, who is upset about the situation with Eric. She gets to thinking, and they start searching for the marriage certificate. Once they find it in an envelope, Steffy is surprised that Eric didn't sign the marriage license. Steffy tells Liam that Ridge is on his way. Quinn may not be Mrs. Forrester after all. In the hall, Carter chats with Pam about the stress of waiting. Carter is concerned that things are going to get more difficult, before they get better. In the office, Ridge arrives and Steffy shows him the unsigned, non filed marriage certificate. Liam pipes up, “Legally speaking, Quinn can’t be Mrs. Eric Forrester.” Ridge notes he has Eric’s power-of-attorney, and with this news, he can make sure Quinn doesn’t hurt the company or family. Once alone, Liam and Steffy speculate on what Ridge will do next. Liam reflects on the misery Quinn has caused and they embrace.
Steffy decides to fix things with Wyatt and move back in. Wyatt overhears Steffy and Ridge's plan to remove Eric from CEO by using Ridge as power-of-attorney and is appalled. Steffy defends their reason of protecting the family but Wyatt breaks up with her. Quinn rushes in the hospital room to see her husband, although the doctor only allows the immediate family. The Forresters try to tell Quinn they're not legally married but Quinn demands to see her husband anyway. Quinn has a heart-to-heart with Eric, causing his finger to move and start to wake up. Once Eric is back at the Forrester Mansion, he signs the marriage license. However Ridge is able to name himself CEO with Steffy as President.
Affair with QuinnEdit
Quinn is in charge of orchestrating the Forrester fashion show. She wants Steffy to wear the showstopper dress which is exactly identical to all the other dresses, just with the jewelry different, to let the jewelry shine. Steffy refuses to show defiance of Quinn. Quinn decides to wear the showstopper, with Ivy being the announcer. Ridge is forced to approach her on stage and give a speech. Although, the Forresters were appalled by the showstopper, it was received with instant acclaim, proving it to be a successful move.
Ridge hides in the bushes at the Forrester Mansion, lurking to see whether Quinn is up to no good. He unintentionally finds Quinn naked, trying out the backyard shower she bought as a surprise for Eric. Quinn hears Ridge rustling in the bushes and asks for whoever that is to reveal themselves. Ridge reveals himself and explains what he was doing there. Meanwhile, Quinn is extremely comfortable and not ashamed at all, and begins flirting with Ridge, making light of him seeing her naked. Ridge apologizes again and leaves the yard.
Quinn offers to model some designs for Ridge while he compliments the outfit and puts jewelry on her. Quinn makes quite a few innuendos about the incident. Ridge realizes Quinn seems attracted to him after that and is seemingly flirting with him. Ridge conspires to steal Quinn away from Eric, to get Quinn out of them company. Quinn twists her ankle and Ridge offers to rub it for her. Quinn thanks him but assumes it just needs some heat, so she roams over to the steam room. Ridge accompanies her and tells her to close her eyes while he massages her feet. Ridge works his way up to her knee, when Quinn feels uncomfortable and dashes out. Outside the steam room, Ivy eavesdrops on Quinn and Ridge debate who's playing games and about her naked teasing.
Eric suggests that Ridge and Quinn go on a business trip to San Francisco together to bond and get over their feud. Quinn is hesitant and insecure but Eric resists. Eric calls and books two rooms for Quinn and Ridge. Ridge calls them back and tells the receptionist to make it one room. Quinn and Ridge get to their room and Quinn immediately realizes what Ridge is doing. Quinn explains to Ridge that he hates her so much that he's trying to seduce her away from his own father. Quinn refuses to fall victim to him like all the other women that did. Quinn opens up to Ridge about her history with men and why she's so complicated. Ridge empathizes with her and tells her the reason Eric fell for her was because he can see who she really is, the woman she's hiding from the world, who is beautiful and amazing. Quinn and Ridge embrace and share a kiss, but then both found it as wrong and decided against doing it again.
At this point in time, Ridge was engaged to Brooke, but had revealed as much to her as that he wanted to rid the family and his father of Quinn. However, his plan seemed to have taken a turn for the better. He saw that Quinn was changed woman, and her time with Eric has done this to her. Ridge confuses everybody by upholding Quinn, her feelings and her designs. This stuns everybody, but makes Eric very pleased. However, nobody knew of Ridge's ulterior motives.
Ridge and Quinn kissed while Eric was away on business, and again after Zende and Nicole's wedding reception - which was caught by Ivy, who slapped Quinn and told her off for betraying her grandfather. Charlie also had suspicions after seeing them together at the wedding and around Forrester Creations, which fell on Pam's deaf ears. In all of this, though, the largest suspicions came from Katie, whom not only lived next door but also had a crush on Eric.
Katie watched the two from afar and told Brooke of her suspicions, which she did not believe. On the plane to Australia, Quinn and Ridge held hands, which Katie also saw, and reported to Brooke, which the reply came through as her being nuts. After Liam and Steffy's wedding reception on Manly Beach, Quinn and Ridge both went for walks, and ran into one another. Quinn discussed how happy Liam and Steffy are, and that thanks to Eric, she could not be happier either. Ridge agrees that he could not want anyone better for his father. Ridge and Quinn kiss once again, but it was caught by Brooke, whom had gone to join Ridge.
Brooke confronted the two and told Quinn off, while Ridge escaped. After a spar of words and accusations, Brooke set off to tell Eric. Quinn followed. After reaching Eric's apartment, Brooke told him that she needs to have a word with him, and Quinn said the same. Eric needed some time to think, and during this time, Ridge, Quinn, and Brooke met in a room to discuss what had happened and what was to be told. They settled on an agreement - as long as there is no more interaction between Ridge and Quinn, the secret is to be kept from Eric.
Returning home from Australia, Katie had words with both Ridge and Quinn. She had been told by Brooke and received an apology for disbelief with it. Katie found that this gives her control over Ridge and Quinn, ordering Quinn around, for whatever tasks get left unfilled will result in her husband knowing of the secret.
Shots Fired At Quinn Edit
In June 2017, shots had been fired at Quinn, on the Forrester Mansion porch. The immediate suspect was Katie, whom had already holstered a gun at Quinn as a sign of threat, holding the secret of her affair with Ridge. Katie was taken into custody and pleaded innocent, to which she also proved herself being.
Quinn decided to pay Katie another visit, but nobody was home. Quinn sees a woman trying to escape the house without being noticed. Quinn asked who she is. She tells Quinn she is Sheila, an old friend of the Logans. Quinn dismisses this as she had never heard of her, but then told this to Eric at home, who asked if it was Sheila Carter - his ex-wife. If so, Eric warned Quinn to stay well away, as Sheila is trouble.
Coming home after being interrogated about the attempted murder of Quinn, Katie finds Sheila in her home. She is immediately frightened and threatens to call the police, but Sheila assures her that she is a changed woman after serving time, and that she should put in some good word for her within the Forresters. Katie messages Eric without Sheila seeing, to which Eric rushes to the scene, questions Sheila's intentions (to which he got the same answers), and proceeds to call Lt. Baker, claiming to have found the shooter. Sheila was taken into custody.
Sheila is interrogated at the police station, and pleads to have known nothing of a shooting. She tries to convince Baker and Eric of her innocence, and the same lines of how her involvement with the Forresters (and the time she had served) has changed her for the better. However, given her track record, and the fact that she had already violated a restraining order from Eric, Sheila was arrested and taken away.
It turns out Sheila was, however, telling the truth. Shots were fired again at Quinn while Sheila was away. Quinn sees them and rushes inside, and hides. Enter a seemingly drunken Deacon Sharpe, whom had arrived after a long disappearance. Quinn tells him to hide, but Deacon reassures her and says that he can deal with them. He calls 911. Quinn thanks him, but Deacon, going for Eric's tequila, goes off at Quinn as to how she can get everything she wants - and leaving him with nothing. He reverts back to being shoved off a cliff, then saving Quinn and housing her, and then her mistreating him and finding solace with Eric. Quinn and Deacon spar and argue for a period, but Quinn is mainly focused on her safety. She asks Deacon to see his phone and check how long it had been since the police called. Deacon reaches into his pocket and grabs a pistol, saying that they both know he faked that call.
Deacon continues his ranting at Quinn while holstering his gun at her, saying that he was the one shooting her, as she deserves not to live knowing she had mistreated him. Quinn fears further for her life, but Katie finds Quinn in this situation while spying from afar with her telescope. Katie calls Ridge, whom had been called to Quinn's guard since the shooting first occurred. Ridge rushes to the scene right in the nick of time, knocks Deacon unconscious and grabs the gun. He then goes to comfort Quinn, as her hero.
Deacon wakes up after Ridge had called the police. Deacon remembers nothing of the incident, however, was told all about it. Deacon explained he is even broker than before and had reverted back to alcoholism. Deacon asked Quinn for money, a place to live, and, preferably, his life back. Quinn said that Deacon tried to kill her, refusing to, before the police and Eric arrive to take him away.
Brooke, Bill and Wyatt were called for comfort and further concern, and Katie came to explain it was her that called Ridge, to which Quinn was grateful. She then proceeded to walk outside, knowing the shooter was gone. Eric got a call from Lt. Baker, saying that Deacon was in the process of being booked, and that Sheila was innocent - however, she had broken the restraining order. Eric had the choice whether or not to continue with the charges, to which he decided not to.
Quinn goes out on the porch again, and Ridge follows. They talk, and Quinn thanks him for protecting her. She then tells him she is falling in love with him, to which he answers back. They share a passionate moment.
Ridge had no defense when Sheila put the pieces together about him and Quinn and went to Eric. Ridge placed the blame on himself and was dismayed to learn that Eric might have taken off with Sheila. Ridge couldn't believe it when Steffy revealed she'd gotten Liam to track Eric's cell phone, then shot Sheila thinking Sheila had a gun in her purse. Ridge went to Eric and admitted he'd always been in competition with him, suggesting he'd wooed Quinn to get back at Eric because he'd made him co-CEO under Steffy -- and because he could. Ridge tearfully accepted it when Eric disowned him.
Ridge got stuck in the Forrester elevator with Quinn and admitted he missed their friendship, not knowing that Sheila had trapped them there trying to get an incriminating photo of them in a clinch. Later, Ridge felt his luck changing when Eric came to him and admitted he'd turned his back on Ridge to hurt him, which led to a reconciliation; also, Ridge learned that Brooke had left Bill -- though she wouldn't say why, Ridge offered Brooke his friendship, hopeful that Brooke might find her way back to him after all. Ridge was pleased when most of the guests at the Thanksgiving table deemed him and Brooke destiny.
Thorne's Return and Engagement to BrookeEdit
Ridge immediately locked horns with the returning Thorne and engaged in a shoving match with him. Though he sensed Thorne had an ulterior motive for his homecoming, Ridge proposed to Brooke and announced their engagement at the Forrester family Christmas gathering.
- Cheated on fiance Caroline Spencer with Alex Simpson. (1987)
- Made love to his brother's wife, Caroline, as a prank (1988).
- Made love to Brooke Logan Forrester twice though she was married to Eric Forrester (1991).
- Participated in a scheme to dupe Brooke out of the BeLieF patent (1993).
- Pushed Brooke in a pool, knocking her unconscious (1993).
- Decked Thorne Forrester over the love of Taylor Hayes (Jan 1997).
- Threw punches at Thorne Forrester over the love of Taylor Hayes (Jul 1997).
- Knocked Thorne Forrester unconscious over the betrayal of Taylor Hayes (Sep 1997).
- Arrested and jailed for shooting Grant Chambers (1997).
- Knocked Pierce Peterson unconscious over the love of Taylor Hayes (Dec 1998).
- Strangled Morgan DeWitt over pregnancy scandal (Jun 2000).
- Unintentionally cheated on his wife, Taylor Hayes Forrester, with Morgan DeWitt (Dec 2000).
- Tricked Brooke into admitting feelings to sabotage her relationship with Thorne Forrester (2000).
- Engaged on an assault against Deacon Sharpe over protection of Bridget Forrester (May 2001).
- Punched Massimo Marone in the jaw over manipulation (2001).
- Punched Deacon Sharpe over a false story Amber Moore wrote (Mar 2002).
- Engaged in a civil war against Sheila Carter, after being held hostage (Oct 2003).
- Held Nick Marone against a wall and issued him a death threat over the fatherhood of Brooke's child (Nov 2003).
- Held Thorne Forrester against a wall and punched him, over control of Forrester Creations (Sep 2004).
- Slammed Thorne Forrester against a wall, over control of Forrester Creations (Oct 2004).
- Set Thomas Forrester up to fail fashion challenge (2005).
- Unintentionally raped Brooke Logan Marone (2006).
- Punched Rick Forrester over the protection of daughter Phoebe Forrester (Mar 2007).
- Obstructed justice by hiding Shane's body and framing Nick for Shane's death (Jun 2007).
- Pulled the plug on Eric Forrester without permission (Sep 2008).
- Accidentally pushed Rick off the roof at Forrester (Nov 2008).
- Punched Oliver Jones over the love and protection of Brooke and Hope Logan (Apr 2010).
- Punched Liam Spencer over the protection of daughter Steffy Forrester (Jul 2010).
- Punched Bill Spencer over Forrester Creations (May 2011).
- Punched Thorne Forrester over the love of Taylor Hayes (Sep 2011).
- Attacked Bill Spencer on his desk (May 2014).
- Punched Bill Spencer at the altar in Dubai (Jun 2014).
- Punched Justin Barber (Jul 2014).
- Attempted to drop Bill Spencer out of a helicopter (Jul 2014).
- Fought Bill Spencer in the Forrester Creations Sky Lounge (Oct 2014).
- Kissed Caroline Spencer who was married to Rick Forrester, while Ridge himself, was engaged to Katie Logan (Nov 2014).
- Tore up his son, Thomas Forrester's designs (Jul 2015).
- Stole a picture of Aly Forrester from her funeral (Jul 2015).
- Kept the paternity of Caroline and Thomas's baby a secret and tried to pass it off as his (2015-2016).
- Flirted with Quinn Fuller in the steam room, by rubbing her leg (Dec 2016).
- Kissed Quinn Fuller at hotel in San Francisco, while engaged to Brooke Logan Forrester (January 2017).
- Knocked Deacon Sharpe unconscious (Jun 2017).
- Punched Bill Spencer over the deck of blaming him and accused him for taking advantage of Steffy Forrester. (Jan 2018)
Maladies and InjuriesEdit
- Shot in the head by his brother, Thorne Forrester (1988).
- Beaten up by Blake Hayes (1992).
- Blinded in explosion at the Forrester lab (1995).
- Severed artery in neck by falling into sword in Massimo's office (2001).
- Lacerated left hand during fight with Deacon Sharpe (2002).
- Shoved by Eric Forrester over the protection of Bridget Forrester (Jun 2003).
- Kidnapped by Sheila Carter and presumed dead after falling into furnace (Oct 2003).
- Almost froze while trapped in a mineshaft by Amber Moore (2005).
- Hit his head and suffered concussion resulting in loss of memory (2005).
- Held at gunpoint by Nick Marone (Apr 2006).
- Suffered a stress-related heart attack (2006).
- Punched and choked by Rick Forrester on Forrester roof (2008).
- Almost fell from Forrester's roof during the second scuffle with Rick Forrester (2009).
- Cut himself smashing Spencer award and smeared blood on his face (Feb 2010).
- Slapped by Brooke Forrester (Dec 2013).
- Suffered amnesia after being dumped into the Persian Gulf by Bill Spencer (Jun 2014).
- Fought Bill Spencer in the Forrester Creations Sky Lounge (Oct 2014).
- Had a vasectomy in Paris in 2013. Revealed to Brooke Logan in 2015.
- Punched by Thomas Forrester (Sep 2015).